A history of english kings (And queens) Pt.2

When Edward the Confessor, who was part of the house of Wessex and the rightful ruler, came to the throne, he found a dangerous enemy. He happened to be the former favorite of Cnut, and his name was Godwin, earl of Wessex.

Edward had good reasons to hate Godwin, chief among them was the fact that when Edward and his brother were trying to take the throne from Cnut’s sons, his brother was caught, imprisoned, and murdered by Godwin. Edward and Godwin created a standoff for many years, until finally, Edward claimed victory when Godwin was forced into exile.

Edward had no sons, let alone children, to inherit the throne. Godwin had no ties to the house of Wessex, but would probably take the throne after he died. So, in 1051, Edward offered his kingdom to William, duke of Normandy, after he died. This would not last. Two years later, Godwin died, and his son, Harold Godwinson, took the position of Earl of Wessex, and his other son, Tostig, took a position as Earl of Northumbria.

in 1066, though, Edward died, and left his kingdom, surprisingly, to Harold Godwinson. In only a short amount of time, Harold was marching against a force led by his brother Tostig and Hardrada of Norway. He soon crushed them, but then he had to take his exhausted force south to defend against William of Normandy, who was also attacking.

The two met near Hastings. The battle raged all day, with the Norman archers and knights trying to take down the Saxon shield wall. Again and Again William charged uphill at Harold, and every time he came back down with less men and no victory. Finally, Harold was killed, hit by an archer in the eye and hacked the rest of the way to death by one of William’s knights. Soon afterwards, the Saxon shield wall faltered due to losing their leader, and fled.

This shock was to be continued, as village after village was taken by William. He decided to use a method that he was familiar with: Terrorize the country into submission.

The wars of religion in England

The crown of England and Religion have been tied together for most of history, but, in the 1530s, All of that changed. Part of that was due to England’s limited monarchy.

Monarchy started out as a dictatorship, and changed over time. Monarchy that allows the king to tax at will and do anything without anyone’s agreement is called an absolute monarchy. France was the ultimate example of an absolute monarchy.

On the other side, England was a limited monarchy, meaning that there was a Parliament that voted on taxes and other subjects. Here, the people, or at least the rich people, had a say in government. But, in a way, the Barons and other lords were saying that they, and only them, could hold the king to account. The king’s true power lied with the villages and towns of England.

Kings, in the middle ages, were ruled over by the Pope religiously. In the pope’s mind, he was also the political master of kings, and most kings didn’t agree with this. Many kings argued with the Pope.

Protestantism began in the 1520s as a group of Christians said that the Pope and the Catholic church was “Corrupt and over-mighty”. This was a chance for the English kings to try to gain more power, when Henry VIII made the Royal supremacy by making himself the head of the Church of England.

At this point, Parliament thought that the king would gain too much power through religion, but what would Parliament do to stop the reform?

Why Rome fell to the Barbarians.

In this blog post, I will explain how, and why, Rome was overrun by barbarians.

For hundreds of years, Rome ruled most of Europe with little resistance. The barbarians outside the border were not strong enough to take on Rome’s army, but by AD 200, it was becoming clear that Rome couldn’t hold it’s borders. The glory days of the five ‘good’ emperors had passed, and a new sector of emperors came in, known as the 20 short emperors. In a period of fifty years, from 234 to 284 AD, 20 emperors ruled the empire, and most got to the seat by murdering their predecessor. During this time of turmoil, Rome’s borders collapsed quite a bit.

After this, the new emperor, split the empire in half, knowing that it was too big to handle. For a short while, the empire was stable, but all that changed in 378, when the eastern emperor, Valens, was killed at the battle of Adrianople, at the hands of barbarians, the Visigoths. After this, his successor, Theodosius, united the empire under his rule for a short amount of time, the last emperor to do so.

The next emperors in the Roman empire were weak. The eastern emperor couldn’t control his territory, and the western emperor, Honorius, saw Rome sacked by the Visigoths. After that event, Rome began to decline. The last emperor who truly ruled well was Valentinian the third, and he was assassinated in 455 AD. Rome finally fell to barbarians completely in Ad 476.

WHY did Rome fall?

There are some good answers to the question. Here are the questions and answers.

Q: Why did Rome’s border collapse?

A: The 20 emperors greatly weakened the borders by fighting each other rather than combine and fight one enemy. The barbarians finally realized that they were going to have to team up to actually get anywhere against Rome. This is what they did, and that is how the borders weakened.

Q: Why did the 20 emperors even happen?

A: Probably because of family unrest. All of these emperors were related, so some must have thought that the seat was rightfully theirs.

These two questions are just a couple of examples, but the main question is…

How did the western empire survive for so long?

We are not quite sure why yet, and we probably will never know. All we know is that the empire fell and the dark ages began, spelling the end of a Europe ruled by barbarians and empires.

Great defeats of the Roman empire

In this blog post, I will talk about three major defeats of the Roman Empire. They were Cannae, Carrhae, and Tutoburger Wald.

The battle at Cannae was not the first military disaster of the Roman empire. The battle of Trebia had done that. Why Cannae was so important was the death of one man, a general, as well as many men.

The battle was fought between the consul, Varro, of Rome and Hannibal Barca, brother of Hamilcar Barca, leader of Carthage. In this war, the Second Punic War, Hannibal had made an assault on Italy. He had won many victories due to superior generalship, and, since his forces were much smaller than the Roman Armies, he certainly didn’t enjoy superior numbers, and he didn’t need them. The Romans had 58,000 Legionaries, 16,000 Light auxiliaries, and 6,000 cavalry, that included both the Roman cavalry and Allied cavalry.

Meanwhile, Hannibal only had 32,000 infantry, 8,000 Light auxiliaries, and 10,000 Cavalry, which included Numidian cavalry and Gallic and Spanish Cavalry. Hannibal’s advantage lay not in his infantry or his Light troops, nor in anyone from the Carthaginian Empire, but the Gallic and Spanish cavalry.

The battle began with the Light troop skirmishes, and soon have both sets of infantry battering each other. Hannibal draws the Roman General Paullus and most of the Legionaries into a trap. Meanwhile, his cavalry batter down the Roman and allied cavalry. The Numidian cavalry are held off, but the Spanish and Gallic are victorious. Finally, they go behind the Roman forces, sealing their fate.

Half of the Roman force is killed, as well as Paullus himself, at the cost of very little Carthaginian lives. Despite these victories, Hannibal did not feel strong enough to attack Rome. Not too long later, he was called back to Carthage, where he was defeated by general Scipio at the battle of Zama. Through all of Rome’s battles, it has been shown that Roman foot soldiers are the strong point, and the cavalry are the weak spot. Many of Rome’s enemies won over them sometimes because of superior horsemanship.

Carrhae was the worst defeat of the Romans in the Middle East. Recently, Rome had come up against the Parthian Empire. General Licinius Crassus prepared an invasion. It seemed that he would be unbeatable, with 32,000 infantry, 4,000 Gallic and Roman cavalry, and 6,000 Arab cavalry. They were only faced by 11,000 Parthian cavalry, but the Romans underestimated their enemy.

The Parthians and the Roman cavalry slugged out for a while. What the Romans didn’t know was that the Parthians had two different kinds of cavalry. They knew about the Horse archers, but not about the heavily armed Cataphracts, a kind of Super-heavy cavalry. They charged at the Roman forces with the cover of the Horse archers, and destroyed the Roman force. Crassus and more than 20,000 soldiers died, and 5,000 soldiers were taken prisoner and never seen again. It was thought that they were killed.

The Romans always took the Parthians seriously after this. They wouldn’t suffer another defeat for more than fifty years. The next one came during the Roman empire, and it was one of the greatest military disasters of all time. Its name is Tutoburger Wald….

Tutoburger Wald is probably one of the most famous military defeats of all time. The one general who caused all this was related to emperor Augustus. He was Publius Quinctilius Varus. Augustus had put him in charge of the Germans, mainly the Cherusci tribe. Under Varus, the Germans were brutally suppressed, which lost him much local support. Varus still thought that the Cherusci were loyal to him and liked him.

Not too long afterwards, Varus went to crush a rebellion in Germany. He was in control of three legions, about 15,000 men, along with cavalry and auxiliaries, making for a grand total of 21,000 men. But to get there, Varus had to go through the forest of Tutoburger Wald. For that, chief Arminius of the Cherusci and some of his guides were used by the Romans.

Suddenly, the Germans disappeared, but soon came back with an army of about 31,000 men. They slowly attacked the exhausted Roman soldiers. It had been raining, making shields heavy and useless. The Romans were broken apart and slowly destroyed.

Finally, realizing that he had made a massive mistake, Varus committed suicide, while all of his other men died around him. At the end of the battle, Only a handful of Romans survived. In memory of these lost legions, Rome never again used the numbers 17, 18, or 19. These were the legion numbers that Varus had. Tutoburger Wald went on to become Rome’s greatest defeat ever, and perhaps the greatest in ancient times.

Rome is not invincible, and that was showed during these battles. Tutoburger Wald ended Roman invincibility, and the Romans never again invaded Germany.

Minecraft weekly #4(Along with Blog information!)

Blog Info:

If you are waiting for other Blog posts, it is because I am quite busy right now. I do have a few pre made Blog posts that I will release over time.

Minecraft weekly:

In this fourth step, I am expecting that you have Diamonds and other rare things, along with basic stuff. First step to this new age is to gather these supplies:(a Stack means 64 of an item)

Diamond tools

Iron armor

stack of wood.

Stack of coal

two stacks of Cobblestone

stack of torches

Stack of Iron

Spare diamonds

Emeralds(If you find any. I don’t expect you to find them, so this is optional)

Whatever else you want to take!

Once you have these items in your inventory, make sure that you have a chest with some backup items in it back at your home. Also, if you have spare diamonds, don’t take many, just three(In case you need another pickaxe).

If you have an Enchantment table and(Optional) bookshelves, place the bookshelves in a square one block away from the Enchantment table. There has to be nothing between the Enchantment table and the Bookshelves except for the air. There HAS to be a one block space, or it will not work. Now you may be asking me “Why are you telling me to do this?”. This is because NOW you have the highest enchantment levels.

Enchanting is a complicated system, and today I am not going to tell you about it. Just keep with it for right now, but don’t use your enchantment table yet. Now you are ready to go on an adventure. Go wherever you want, but try not to die. You could go into more caves, explore the overworld, or even make a new home. ALWAYS remember where your old home is, though, because it is a nightmare to get lost.

The next step isn’t really a step, it is more of an age. At the beginning of the last age, you would have thought that everything is complete. It isn’t. In the next Minecraft weekly, I will talk about all the new adventures that are waiting for you when you get back from your final adventure in the older age.

Minecraft weekly #3

So far, we’ve gotten a good start to minecraft; A home, good tools, building blocks, and food. If you just want to do that for the rest of your minecrafting days, then from this point on, these blog posts will be useless for you. If you want to go farther, and explore the dangerous and uncharted parts of minecraft and get even better upgrades, then these are for you. This section will tell about mining, and what you get when you go deeper.

First of all, you need to mass up supplies, such as food, iron, wood, coal, and, oddly enough, a bucket of water. The water is for in case you run in to lava, so when that happens, just right click while holding the bucket of water when you get out of the lava, and bam, you’re not on fire any longer.

Unlike last time, go AS DEEP AS POSSIBLE, and ALWAYS start from a cave. They can be time and material savers, though you could get blown up. Once you get deep, four different ores will appear along with the ones that you have already seen; these are Gold, Redstone, Lapis, and Diamond. If you are under a mountain biome, you can find Emeralds too. All of these ores must be broken with a iron pickaxe.

Gold ore will look like all the other ores, except with yellow spots instead of black(Coal) or rust(Iron) spots. You have to smelt gold. It is used to make strong tools that last about as long as wood, so don’t use gold for tools(Same with the armor). You could use it to make a clock or powered rails. I usually just keep it in a chest. Like Iron, you can make it into a block and place it.

Redstone is an ore that has red spots on it. It does not need to be smelted, and will drop more then one piece of redstone dust when you break it. YOU CANNOT USE IT FOR TOOLS, it is used mostly for redstone creations. Redstone is like a wire used to carry electricity in your house, and can turn on different things. It does need something to turn it on, though. Redstone blocks are newly added into the game, and are used in redstone circuits.

Lapis is very much like redstone, but have a few major differences. First of all, Lapis has dark blue spots on its ore. Second of all, it isn’t used for redstone circuits; it is used for dyeing things blue. You can make it into a block.

Diamonds are the best of all. They have light blue spots on their ore, and drop one diamond that does not need smelting. These diamonds create the best, most durable tools and armor around. Diamonds are very rare, though. Just like everything else, they can be made into a block. They are also used in other items, such as Enchanting tables and jukeboxes.

Emeralds are like diamonds, except the only use of them is to trade with villagers. They also have green spots on their ore. This ore is the rarest. They can be made into blocks.